Expanding Ethical Reciprocity

Ethical action: Developing more ways of reciprocating to meet our needs and the needs of others

Reciprocal transactions involve direct contact and negotiation between the parties involved including the humans and nonhumans who help provide for our needs.

Various community-supported organizations can help us maintain ethical reciprocity in our market transactions.

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) schemes exist in many countries including Urban Roots (US), Food Connect (Australia), Oak Tree low carbon farm (UK) and Wairarapa Eco Farms (NZ).The Union for Concerned Scientists in the US put out a fact sheet CSAs for meat and eggs with information on the widespread use of CSAs and their benefits and challenges.

CSA schemes such as Pioneer Valley Heritage Grain specialize in heritage grains to preserve genetic diversity. Community Supported Fisheries (CSF) in the US are accessible via Local Catch a CSF network.

Complementary Currencies are a growing network of initiatives such as time banks where members exchange services without money.

Hour Exchange Portland offers individuals, organisations and businesses opportunities to give and receive hundreds of services based on time credits.

Timebanking (Australia) and Timebanking (UK) are similar programs encouraging voluntary exchange of services between members.

The Community Exchange System lists communities in over sixty countries where trading happens using currencies other than money. An example is Local exchange and trading systems (LETS) which have networks Australia wide.

A direct negotiation, exchanging what one person needs for what another needs, is known as barter and also expands ethical reciprocity. An example is I will work in your vegetable garden for an hour if you will repair my torn coat.